Journals and Conferences


1) Elgharbawy, A. A. M.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Goto, M. Facilitating Enzymatic Reactions by Using Ionic Liquids: A Mini Review. Curr. Opin. Green Sustain. Chem. 2021, 27, 100406.

2) Azmi, Nor Azrini Nadiha and Mohd Noor, Nurul Auni, Elgharbawy, Amal A.M. A bibliometric analysis on halal cosmetics over twenty years. Halalsphere (2021) 1 (1): 53-71. E-ISSN 2773-6040.

3) Sabah J. Mohammed, Mohanad Jasim M-Ridha, Khalid M. Abed & Amal A. M. Elgharbawy, Removal of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin from aqueous solutions and an economic evaluation using the electrocoagulation process, International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry (2021). DOI: 10.1080/03067319.2021.1913733

4) Shahidah Nusailah Rashida, Adeeb Hayyan, Maan Hayyan, Mohd Ali Hashim, Amal A.M. Elgharbawy, Fazrizatul Shakill Sani, Wan Jefrey Basirun, Vannajan Sanghiran Leef, Yatimah Alias, Alaa Kareem Mohammed, Mohamed E.S.Mirghanie, M.Y.Zulkiflih, Maher Rage, Chem Eng Res Des (2021) 169:77–85.

5) Motlagh, Shiva Rezaei and Harun, Razif and Awang Biak, Dayang Radiah and Hussain, Siti Aslina and Omar, Rozita and Khezri, Ramin and Elgharbawy, Amal A.M., Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of lipid and eicosapentaenoic acid from Nannochloropsis oceanica biomass: experimental optimization approach. Journal of Applied Phycology (2021): 1-15. ISSN 0921-8971 E-ISSN 1573-5176.

6) Lee, C. H., Hun, L. T., Ong, P. Y., Wong, S. L., Hamdan, N., Elgharbawy, A. A., & Azmi, N. A. Integrated Ultrasound-Mechanical Stirrer Technique for Extraction of Total Alkaloid Content from Annona muricata. Process Biochemistry (2021), 109, 104-116.


1) Elgharbawy A., Moniruzzaman M, Goto M. Recent Advances of Enzymatic Reactions in Ionic Liquids: Part II, Biochemical Engineering Journal, 154 (2020), 107426. doi. 10.1016/j.bej.2019.107426.

2) Elgharbawy A., Azmi A., Mohd Salleh, H. Ionic liquids: promising solvents for halal industry, Food Research 4 (2020), (Suppl. 1) : 52 – 62.

3) Shiva Rezaei Motlagh, Razif Harun, Dayang Radiah Awang Biak, Siti Aslina Hussain, Rozita Omar and Amal A. Elgharbawy, COSMO-RS Based Prediction for Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA) Extraction from Microalgae Biomass Using Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs), Marine Drugs (2020), 18, 108: 1-24.

4) Elgharbawy, A. Hayyan, M., Hayyan, A., Jefrey, W., Mohd, H., Mirghani, M.E.S., Biomass and Bioenergy A grand avenue to integrate deep eutectic solvents into biomass processing, Biomass and Bioenergy. 137 (2020) 105550. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2020.105550.

5) A. M. Elgharbawy, Nurhusna Samsudin, Farah Fadwa Benbelgacem, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh and Jacinta Santhanam, Phytochemicals with antifungal properties: Cure from nature, Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. 16(2020). doi:10.21161/mjm.

6) Azmi, N.A.N.; Hasham, R.; Ariffin, F.D.; Elgharbawy, A.A.M.; Salleh, H.M. Characterization, Stability Assessment, Antioxidant Evaluation and Cell Proliferation Activity of Virgin Coconut Oil-based Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Loaded with Ficus deltoidea Extract. Cosmetics 2020, 7, 83.

7) Amal A. Elgharbawy, Md. Zahangir Alam, Muhammad Moniruzzaman, Nassereldeen Ahmad Kabbashi, Parveen Jamal and Shiva Rezaei Motlagh, Effect of Choline Acetate on the Yeast Cells During Fermentation: Kinetics Approach, Current Biochemical Engineering (2020) 6: 1.

8) Elgharbawy, A. A. M.; Syed Putra, S. S.; Hayyan, M.; Hayyan, A.; Basirun, W. J.; Mirghani, M. E. S.; Majrashi, A. A.; Nawawi, W. M. F. W.; Alias, Y.; Mohd Salleh, H.; et al. Polyamidoamine Dendrimers: Favorable Polymeric Nanomaterials for Lipase Activation. Mater. Today Commun. 2020, 25, 101492.

9) Kartika, B.; Parson, S. W.; Jamaludin, M. A.; Husman, N. F.; Elgharbawy, A. A. M. The Importance of Preserving the Freshness of Fish to Fulfil the Tayyiban Based on the Analysis of Scientific and Islamic Jurisprudence Principles. Food Res. 2020, 4, 274–280.

10) Motlagh, S. R.; Harun, R.; Biak, D. R. A.; Hussain, S. A.; Elgharbawy, A. A.; Khezri, R.; Wilfred, C. D. Prediction of Potential Ionic Liquids (ILS) for the Solid–Liquid Extraction of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from Microalgae Using COSMO-RS Screening Model. Biomolecules 2020, 10 (8), 1–20.


1) Hamid, A.H., Elgharbawy, A.A., Rohman, A., Rashidi, O., Hammed, H., Nurrulhidayah, A.F. Optimisation of browning index of Maillard reaction in gelatine powder by response surface methodology (RSM) for halal authentication. Food Research. 3 (2019), 5: 525-529. doi:10.26656/fr.2017.3(5) 116. Download

2) S. Rezaei Motlagh, R. Harun, A. Biak, D. Radiah, S.A. Hussain, W.A. Wan Ab Karim Ghani, R. Khezri, C.D. Wilfred, A.A.M. Elgharbawy, Screening of Suitable Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents for Extraction of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) from Microalgae Biomass Using COSMO-RS Model, Molecules. 24 (2019), 713. doi:10.3390/molecules24040713. Download

3) A.A.M. Elgharbawy, M.Z. Alam, M. Moniruzzaman, N. Ahmad Kabbashi, P. Jamal, High yield of second-generation ethanol in an ionic Liquid-Cellulase integrated system for single-step processing of empty fruit bunch, Biofuels. (2019), 1–12. doi:10.1080/17597269.2018.1542569. Download

4) A.A.M. Elgharbawy, A. Hayyan, M. Hayyan, S.N.R. Mohamed E. S. Mirghani, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, Gek Cheng Ngoh, S.Q. Liew, M.Z.Z. Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor, and Y. Alias, Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent-Assisted Pectin Extraction from Pomelo Peel Using Sonoreactor: Experimental Optimization Approach, Processes. 7(9) 1–19. Download

5) Nor Azrini Nadiha Azmi, Amal A. M. Elgharbawy, Shiva Rezaei Motlagh, Nurhusna Samsudin and Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, Nanoemulsions: Factory for Food, Pharmaceutical and Cosmetics, Processes. 7(9) 617. Download

6) A.A.M. Elgharbawy, M.Z. Alam, M. Moniruzzaman, Hamzah Mohd Salleh, Hydrolysis Kinetics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch in Ionic Liquids and Cellulase Integrated System, International Journal of Chemistry. 11 (2019) 95-105. doi:10.5539/ijc.v11n2p95. Download


1) A.A. Elgharbawy, F.A. Riyadi, M.Z. Alam, M. Moniruzzaman, Ionic liquids as a potential solvent for lipase-catalysed reactions: A review, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 251 (2018), 150–166. doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2017.12.050.

2) Amal Elgharbawy and Md Zahangir Alam (2018), Factors affecting the hydrolysis of empty fruit bunches in ionic liquid-compatible cellulase system, International Conference on Biotechnology Engineering 2018 (ICBioE 2018), 19th-20th Sep 2018, Kuala Lumpur.

3) A. A. Elgharbawy, Md Zahangir Alam, Mohammed Moniruzzaman, Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi and Parveen Jamal, Factors Affecting the in-Situ Hydrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches in Ionic Liquid Compatible Cellulase System, Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 52 (2018), 23-32. doi. 10.1016/j.molliq.2017.12.050.

4) A. A. Elgharbawy, A. Hayyan, M. Hayyan, S. N. Rashid, M. R. M. Nor, M. Y. Zulkifli, Y. Alias, and M. E. S. Mirghania, Shedding Light on Lipase Stability in Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents, Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, 32 (2018), 359–370. doi: 10.15255/CABEQ.2018.1335.

5) A.A. Elgharbawy, M.Z. Alam, M. Moniruzzaman, N.A. Kabbashi, P. Jamal, Chemical and structural changes of pretreated empty fruit bunch (EFB) in ionic liquid-cellulase compatible system for fermentability to bioethanol, 3 Biotech. 8 (2018), 236. doi:10.1007/s13205-018-1253-8.


1) Elgharbawy, A. A., Alam, M. Z., Kabbashi, N. A., Moniruzzaman, M., Jamal, P, Implementation of definite screening design in optimization of in situ hydrolysis of EFB in cholinium acetate and locally produced cellulase combined system. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 8 (2017), 3: 839-850. doi.10.1007/s12649-016-9638-6

2) MS Tajul Islam, Md. Zahangir Alam, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Amal A Elgharbawy, Fatimah A. Riyadi, Development of enzymatic pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent for monomers towards biogas production, Journal of Advanced Research in Materials Science, 38 (2017), 1: 39-44.


1) Elgharbawy, A. A., Alam, M. Z., Moniruzzaman, M., Goto, M., Ionic liquid pretreatment as emerging approaches for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 109 (2016), 252-267. doi: 10.1016/j.bej.2016.01.021

2) Elgharbawy, A. A., Alam, M. Z., Kabbashi, N. A., Moniruzzaman, M., Jamal, P., Evaluation of several ionic liquids for in situ hydrolysis of empty fruit bunches by locally-produced cellulase. 3 Biotech, 6 (2016), 2: 1-15. doi:10.1007/s13205-016-0440-8

3) Alam, M., Elgharbawy, A., Moniruzzaman, M., Kabbashi, N., Jamal, P., Screening of Factors Affecting the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches in Aqueous Ionic Liquid and Locally Produced Cellulase System. International Journal of Chemical, Molecular, Nuclear, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, 10 (2016), 7: 843 – 847.

4) Amal Ahmed Elgharbawy, Md. Zahangir Alam, Hamzah Mohd Salleh., Characterization of low-cost lipase by solid-state fermentation of palm kernel cake using Candida cylindracea. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 11 (2016), 1: 319-326.

5) Elgharbawy, Amal A. and Alam, Md. Zahangir and Riyad, Fatimah Azizah and Saheed, Olorunnisola K and Moniruzzaman, Mohammed (2016) Lipases in ionic liquids system for biodiesel production: A review. In: 4th International Conference on Biotechnology Engineering 2016 (ICBioE 2016), 25th-27th July 2016, Kuala Lumpur.

6) Tajul Islam, M. S., Alam, Md. Zahangir, Al-Mamun, Abdullah, Elgharbawy, Amal A., Riyadi , Fatimah A (2016) Development of enzymatic pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent for monomers towards biogas production. In: 4th International Conference on Biotechnology Engineering 2016 (ICBioE 2016), 25th-27th July 2016, Kuala Lumpur.



1) Amal Elgharbawy, Zahangir Alam, Hamzah Salleh, Statistical Screening and Optimization of Factors that Influence Lipase Production from Palm Kernel Cake Using Candida cylindracea in Solid-state Bioconversion. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, 8 (2014) 691-705.

2) Amal Ahmed Elgharbawy, Md Zahangir Alam, Hamzah Mohd Salleh, Kinetics of Lipase Production from Candida cylindracea by Solid-State Bioconversion of Palm Kernel Cake. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology, and Environmental Sciences, 16 (2014), 3: 523-528.


1) Md Zahangir Alam, Amal Ahmed Elgharbawy, Hamzah Mohd Salleh, (2013), Optimization and Characterization of Candida cylindracea Lipase Produced from Palm Kernel Cake by Solid-State Bioconversion. The AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, USA.

2) Amal Elgharbawy, Zahangir Alam, Hamzah Salleh (2013), Statistical screening and optimization of factors influence lipase production from palm kernel cake using Candida cylindracea by solid-state bioconversion. The 3rd International Conference on Biotechnology Engineering (ICBioE’ 13), Sunway Putra Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Books & Book Chapters

1) A A Elgharbawy, M Muniruzzaman, H M Salleh, Z Alam: Ionic Liquids as a Green Solvent for Lipase-Catalyzed Reactions. Industrial Applications of Green Solvents I. (2019), pp. 21-60, Materials Research Forum LLC. doi:10.21741/9781644900239-2

2) Nibedita Deb, Md. Zahangir Alam, Maan Fahmi Rashid Al-khatib, Amal Elgharbawy: Development of Acid-Base-Enzyme Pretreatment and Hydrolysis of Palm Oil Mill Effluent for Bioethanol Production. Liquid Biofuel Production. (2019), pp. 197-217, ISBN: 9781119459873. doi:10.1002/9781119459866.ch6.